Ritalin and Adderall are controlled substances. You need a picture ID to get the drug at the pharmacy.
An Amphetamines is an Amphetamine no matter what you decide to name it and both Ritalin and Adderall metabolize into amphetamines in the blood. I can usually tell if someone is taking the drug by seeing if they are displaying hand tremors or tics. Many children display a flat affect or what is commonly known as acting like a Zombie as some parents have complained, while taking these drugs. Chairs and tables have a flat affect and they do not misbehave in the classroom. Therefore it would expected that children displaying a "flat affect" would do well on a teacher's behavior rating scale
Amphetamine users have reduced concentrations of a chemical called N-acetyl-aspartate, which is a byproduct of the way neurons work.
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Research carried out in Torrance, California, and reported in the journal "Neurology", compared the brains of 26 previous methamphetamine users with 24 non-users.
They found at least 5% lower concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate in two key areas of the brain, the basal ganglia and frontal white matter.
Dr Thomas Ernst, who led the project, said: "Many brain diseases associated with brain cell or neuronal damage or loss, such as Alzheimer's disease and other dementia, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, brain tumors, stroke and HIV brain diseases, consistently have shown decreased N-acetyl-aspartate.
"This, in the drug users' brains, suggests neuronal loss or damage as a result of long-term amphetamine use."
Amphetamines work by releasing large quantities of the brain stimulating chemical dopamine.
Animal studies have shown brain abnormalities persisting four years after amphetamine use stops.
Ritalin and other Amphetamines used for treatment of ADHD has continued to increase in the school population with apparently little or no real benefit in academic performance. China and Japan where ADHD medications are nonexistent in the school populations have continued to outpace American students who have the "advantage" of the ADHD medications.
Amphetamine users become dependent on the drug, and withdrawal symptoms cause actually cause hyperactivity and aggression. Regular use of ADHD drugs especially in the doses causes hallucinations, aggression, delusions and feelings of paranoia. [ Physicians Desk Reference]
Amphetamines and their salts such a Ritalin, Concerta and Addreall are neurotoxic especially in the higher doses, as a result brain damage can occur, number of brain cells and density of brain cells can be greatly reduced. This leads to irreversible cognitive impairment. Toxic-psychosis which resembles schizophrenia occurs. In addition amphetamines are cardiotoxic due to the damage they can do to the heart. Tachycardia which results from the amphetamine speeding up the heart rate is a direct cause of Microvascular Ischemic Disease of the brain in which tiny blood vessels in the brain break which prevents oxygen from getting to the vital parts of the brain.