Sunday, February 6, 2011

Ritalin and Adderall Do Cause Brain Damage.

Ritalin and Adderall are controlled substances. You need a picture ID to get the drug at the pharmacy. 

An Amphetamines is an  Amphetamine no matter what you decide to name it and both Ritalin and Adderall metabolize into amphetamines in the blood.  I can usually tell if someone is taking the drug by seeing if they are displaying hand tremors or tics.  Many children display a flat affect or what is commonly known as acting like a Zombie as some parents have complained, while taking these drugs. Chairs and tables have a flat affect and they do not misbehave in the classroom.  Therefore it would     expected that children displaying a "flat affect"  would do well on a teacher's behavior rating scale

Amphetamine users have reduced concentrations of a chemical called N-acetyl-aspartate, which is a byproduct of the way neurons work.

Research carried out in Torrance, California, and reported in the journal "Neurology", compared the brains of 26 previous methamphetamine users with 24 non-users.
They found at least 5% lower concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate in two key areas of the brain, the basal ganglia and frontal white matter.
Dr Thomas Ernst, who led the project, said: "Many brain diseases associated with brain cell or neuronal damage or loss, such as Alzheimer's disease and other dementia, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, brain tumors, stroke and HIV brain diseases, consistently have shown decreased N-acetyl-aspartate.
"This, in the drug users' brains, suggests neuronal loss or damage as a result of long-term amphetamine use."
Amphetamines work by releasing large quantities of the brain stimulating chemical dopamine.
Animal studies have shown brain abnormalities persisting four years after amphetamine use stops.
Ritalin and other Amphetamines  used for   treatment of ADHD has continued to increase in the school population with apparently little or no real benefit in academic performance. China and Japan where ADHD medications  are nonexistent in the school populations have continued to outpace American students who have the "advantage" of the ADHD medications. 

Amphetamine users become dependent on the drug, and withdrawal symptoms cause actually cause hyperactivity and aggression.   Regular use of  ADHD drugs especially in the doses  causes hallucinations, aggression, delusions and feelings of paranoia.  [ Physicians Desk Reference]

Amphetamines and their salts such a Ritalin, Concerta and Addreall  are neurotoxic especially in the higher doses, as a result brain damage can occur, number of brain cells and density of brain cells can be greatly reduced. This leads to irreversible cognitive impairment. Toxic-psychosis which resembles schizophrenia  occurs.  In addition  amphetamines are cardiotoxic due to the damage they can do to the heart.  Tachycardia which results from the amphetamine speeding up the heart rate is a direct cause of Microvascular Ischemic Disease of the brain in which tiny blood vessels in the brain break which prevents oxygen from getting to the vital parts of the brain.

In addition Amphetamine causes increases in heart rate and blood pressure, and can cause significant increases in cerebral blood flow with overall increases of around 30% and can be doubled in local regions of the brain, particularly the left frontal cortex.  This activity can lead to haemorrhages and other forms of stroke such as microvasular ischemia.  Karch et al, reviewing 413 methamphetamine-related deaths noted ten cases of subarachnoid and intracranial hemorrhage in the methamphetamine-related group and concluded: Methamphetamine use is strongly associated with coronary artery disease and with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
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  1. hello friend,
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    i.e called as Vinpocetine
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  2. You're trying to compare Meth to dextroamphetamine. You're out of your damn mind. Amphetamines aren't just "amphetamines" like you stated. Meth is far more nuerotoxic than dextroamphetamine or methylphenidate. Yes brain damage occurs in both Meth and non methylated amphetamines but the amount of damage is substantially different. Damage from long term use of dextroamphetamine or methylphenidate is 99.99% reversible with time and proper nutrition. The damaged receptors regenerate themselves overtime. Say, a year at Max for someone who has been on a moderate dose of amphetamines for a few years (2-5 years).